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    設計的言、象、意

    成執設計作為本屆美國IDA 大獎(International Design Awards)建筑類年度最佳設計和商業類金獎得主,近日主辦方對成執設計創始人、總建筑師李杰先生進行了專訪。

    01

    人們叫您設計領軍人,您為什么覺得能夠獲得這個稱號?

    People call you a design hero, why do you think you earned this title?


    得知獲得這個獎,對于中國本土設計師的我來說深感榮耀,由于多年對設計的堅持不懈,及評委會睿智和公正的評價,才能得到如此褒獎。這個項目從木材的物質層面出發,提取傳統結構形式,進行尺度重構,從而構筑成“前衛”的建筑,象征著中國現代木構建筑的興起與發展。


    Winning the IDA Awards is a great honor for a native Chinese designer, and I’d like to attribute this honor to my unwavering devotion to design for all these years, and also to the wise and impartial IDA committee. The winning project leverages the material qualities of wood, draws on traditional architectural structures and forms, and resets dimensions, thereby fashioning an “avant-garde” work that represents the rise and development of modern Chinese wood architecture.



    02

    您是如何發現您想要從事建筑設計的?請您談談建筑領域在中國近幾年的發展。

    How did you discover that you wanted to work with design and architecture, and how do you feel this field has developed in China over the years?


    近幾十年,中國成為了全球最大的“設計舞臺”與“建造工廠”,推動著本土創作的迅猛前進前進,一日千里。建筑設計需要考慮的問題包括功能性、科學性、經濟性、真實性、社會性等眾多方面,受到的限制不計其數,在這些限制下還能完成一個建筑精品這是對設計師的極大考驗及挑戰。在經過多年的探索和磨煉后,我的創作有了更多的前進方向,也希望人們能感受得到建筑背后的文明與文化,以及呈現其間的世界觀和價值觀,為城市的繁榮與發展添上濃墨重彩的一筆。

    In recent decades, China has become the largest “stage for design” and “manufacturing factory” across the globe, and that has propelled its native creativity forward at an overwhelmingly high speed. Architectural design has to consider multiple factors such as functionality, scientific rigor, economic concerns, authenticity and social nature. Bound by a myriad of fetters and chains, designers may find it a supreme test and huge challenge to finally produce an outstanding work. For me, years of exploration and practice have occasioned more possibilities for my architectural pursuits, through which I hope to lead people into the depth of civilization and culture behind architecture, illuminating its underlying worldviews and values, and making a marked contribution to the prosperity and development of cities.


    03

    您出生并成長在中國,畢業于南昌大學。設計這條路容易嗎?您是如何發揮內在創造力的?

    You were born and raised in China, graduating from Nanchang University. Was it easy to pursue your chosen path in design and explore your inner creativity?


    如我之前所述,設計總是一條蜿蜒曲折的道路。在學校中我們能受到基礎的教育,離開學校后,需要時間的沉淀與對世界的深度思索。建筑是文化的軀體,文化是建筑的精髓。世界是日新月異的,但現代建筑是對于地域文化的理解和表達,需要從自然要素與人文要素綜合作用中提取元素,如氣候、資源、習俗等,設計是對這些要素抽象化的領悟與意境化的創造。


    As I said earlier, design is a path full of twists and turns. At school, we receive an education on the basics. After graduation, we need time to learn more and must also engage in deep thinking. Architecture is a body in which culture lives as the soul. Despite the drastic changes happening every day, modern architecture securely hangs on to regional cultures by trying to understand and represent them. It is an abstract conclusion extracted from all the natural and cultural elements of a region, such as its climate, resources and customs, and it is a world of images that conveys profound meaning.


    04

    由貴公司設計并獲獎的原麓社區中心是非常有藝術價值的項目,您認為最主要的優勢是什么?

    Your winning project, the Yuanlu Community Center in Chongqing, is a wonderful work of art. What would you say are its main strengths?


    這個項目最主要的是體現了建筑空間與哲學反思之間的聯系。我們塑造的是建筑的真實性,認為美學樂趣不是感官上直接反映的樂趣,而是依附于思考過程并受其影響的。這就是我們所說的建筑理性與建筑美學的哲學思考。由于“木構”蘊含的傳統特質,給予了設計更多的可能性。從建筑與自然的關系和人文環境的連接出發,根植于木材的物質性和文化意涵,塑造出木構架空間有序的邏輯性和真實性,以求達到建筑、自然和文脈的和諧共生。設計施工一體化,體現了我們對于建筑與技術的關系全新的思考。運用參數化設計和BIM等先進技術快速建造的同時,更是為了服務“木構”的設計表達,強調對自然的尊重和其背后的人文情懷。


    This project mainly reflects the links between architectural space and philosophical thinking. We are careful to make our architecture authentic, and we think that the enjoyment of beauty is not directly felt by the senses, but rather is something dependent on and influenced by thinking. That is what we call a philosophical perspective on the relationship between architectural rationality and architectural aesthetics. The traditional traits of the wood structure make diversified designs possible. Based on the links between architecture and its natural and cultural surroundings, this project, by leveraging the material qualities and cultural connotations of wood, manages to achieve an orderly logic and authenticity in the wooden frame, and thus harmoniously combines architecture, nature and culture.



    05

    您在規劃社區中心時最重要的是什么?遇到的最大挑戰是什么?

    What was most important for you when planning the community center, and what were the biggest challenges you faced in this project?


    項目毗鄰重慶龍興古鎮,御臨河邊,遠山起伏,東側的景觀最佳。作為對環境的回應,細化了御臨河的景觀條件,將三個體量不同的盒子并列置于山坡上,垂直于濱河道路,以期達到濱河景觀及遠山的最佳觀賞視角。這里的縫隙不同于前者水平向上的手法,而是在垂直方向進行了突破。形體結合山坡地勢錯落有致地排列,形成一個個庭院與天井,像是不同大小的縫隙,在獲得建筑內部領域感的同時,也將建筑向自然打開,塑造出場所內外的鄰接性和開放性。建筑的真實性是此項目設計的哲學理念也是最大的挑戰。

    空間與材料、結構密不可分,空間是由構件組成,我們選用膠合木結構創造了高度超過10m,跨度超過16m的大胯空間,在秩序感、韻律感中蘊含著空間的張力。表皮依附于建筑的結構形式,將內域外連貫成為一個整體。在鋁板表皮的設計中,我們通過調節每塊鋁板的折角變化,讓光線的明和暗躍然“板”上,體現出自然的變化,從而建筑的結構、表皮與環境形成真實并和諧的狀態。


    The project neighbors the ancient town of Longxing in Chongqing. It borders the Yulin River and mirrors the distant rolling hills. Its eastern side commands the best view. As a response to the topography around the Yulin River, the project is divided between three box-like buildings of different sizes, which are arranged side by side along the slope and perpendicular to the road along the Yulin River, so as to gain a perfect view of the riverside landscapes and the distant hills. The interstices don’t run horizontally. Instead, they are distributed vertically, fitting into the topography of the slope and neatly formulating sequential interstitial courtyards and patios. It seems as if the various-sized interstices, while claiming a territory inside the architecture, are also opening it to nature, and thus connecting the inside and the outside in an open spirit. The entire project is in pursuit of a “philosophy of authenticity,” which is also its biggest challenge.


    Space is inseparable from materials and structure, and is composed of building components. In this project we used glulam to create large spaces that extend over 10 meters high and 16 meters wide. Within the orderliness and rhythm there is also spatial tension. The exterior of the architecture, adapting to its structural form, unites the warping surfaces into a whole. When designing aluminum plates for the skin, we made sure the angles of each plate were well adjusted, so as to allow even the minutest changes of light to be captured by the “plates” and thus reflecting the changes of nature. In that manner the structure of the architecture, its surface and its surroundings manage to achieve an authentic, harmonious co-existence.



    06

    獲得IDA年度最佳建筑設計獎對您意味著什么?

    What does this recognition of winning the IDA Architectural Design of the Year mean to you?


    人對美的需求是一致的,好的設計是大家都喜歡的,是無邊界的。人的使用是一切建筑的最高精神價值,人們將自身的行為活動參與到建筑中,與建筑融合交織在一起,共同形成了一個生動而又具有活力的“建筑場”,是真實建筑文化與藝術價值的最高體現。建筑師在設計中起到了主導作用,得獎意味著評委會對于文化與藝術完美融合的認可。


    Beauty appeals to all human beings alike. A good design pleases everyone and is border-free. Being used by people is the highest spiritual value any building can create. When human beings live or work in a building, they merge into and get intertwined with it. There then comes a jointly built, lively and energetic architectural place, which displays the authentic value of architectural culture and art to the utmost. Designers always play the leading role in architecture, and this IDA award indicates that the committee has recognized our effort to combine culture and art.




    重慶是一個巨大的大都市,但人們對它的了解比北京或上海要少。這個城市的氛圍是什么樣的?原麓社區中心是如何融入這個環境的?

    Chongqing is a huge metropolis, but people know less about it than, say, Beijing or Shanghai. What is the atmosphere in this city and how does the Yuanlu Community Center fit into this environment?


    重慶位于中國西南區域,城市空間的特點一是山地城市,二是組團城市,三是有著傳奇巴渝傳統、近代風云留跡和當代高速發展的歷時的豐富文化內含。在城市中心、副中心、濱江帶、片區、社區或街區、近郊中的文化要素與單元的空間分布,體現出不同的文化特征。

    建筑是一種媒介,連接著建筑與人,聯系著傳統與現代。重慶書院眾多,書院是中國文化的根,從規劃的角度我們以現代的手法打造了圍合的書院。利用重慶傳統的折坡屋頂秩序的形式語言轉換成為建筑形體,抽取變化的單元模式轉為結構構件,多片構件以秩序和變化進行排列組合。在陽光下,凜冽的金屬質感與似有生命的木結構共同構筑了建筑對話的舞臺。木材、鋼材、鋁板和玻璃迸發出強烈的對峙張力,而連接文化環境的木構架暗示著傳統的空間架構、曾經的真實和時間的流逝,虛實結合、現代感與傳統特質交相輝映。


    Chongqing is a city in Southwest China. It is known by three characteristics: its mountainous topography, its clustered arrangement, and its rich cultural connotation that exudes from its legendary regional traditions, a lingering vestige of modern turmoil and the notable present-day prosperity. The spatial distribution of its cultural elements and units varies between its downtown, sub-downtown, riverside areas, districts, communities (or blocks) and suburbs, presenting different cultural characteristics.


    Architecture serves as a medium between the art of building and human, between the traditional and the modern world. Academies of classical learning — the root of traditional Chinese culture — abound in Chongqing. In our planning we used modern techniques to create an enclosed academy by leveraging the typical sloped roofs found throughout Chongqing design, selecting several apartment buildings as a sample for its structural components and introducing a rich spatial character that appropriately integrates orderliness and variability. The hard metal and the invigorated wood structures in the sunlight seem to together formulate a stage for architectural dialogue. While the wood, steel, aluminum plates and glass break out into a tense confrontation, the wood frame, which connects to culture, implies the traditional spatial structure, authenticity echoing the past, and the passage of time. There is a combination of reality and fantasy, as well as an interaction between the modern and traditional worlds.


    △ 成執設計重慶部分建成項目


    08

    成執設計的理念是什么?你在哪里從工作中獲得動力和靈感?你如何決定參加某些項目?

    What is the philosophy of your company, Challenge Design? Where do you get motivation and inspiration for your work, and how do you decide to take on certain projects?


    成執設計立足“設計本身”,探討空間內在深層的體驗性與真實性,創造出空間多重發展的可能性,并表達出文化內涵的豐富性及時代語言的精神性。很多時候對設計的靈感來源于對真實世界的觀察與探索,借用中國古典哲學理論將其歸納為“言、象、意”三個層次,三者遵循著“得象忘言,得意忘象”的哲學規律。將這些再注入空間中,使建筑有體量、有明暗、有光影、有方向。


    Challenge Design focuses on design itself, and it explores the experiences in and the authenticity of the inner, deeper layers of spaces. It digs into the possibilities for manifold spatial development, and it tries to enrich the cultural connotation of architecture while conveying the spirit of the times. Our designs are often inspired by our perception of and explorations of the real world. We borrowed three terms from Chinese classical philosophy — “words, images and ideas” — and a philosophical law that reads, “Obtaining the idea lies in forgetting the image, and obtaining the image lies in forgetting words.” Then we applied this to the construction of our space to make sure our work was appropriate in size, brightness, visual effect and angling.


    △ 原麓社區設計手稿


    09

    您認為現在職業生涯中最大的挑戰和機遇是什么?

    What do you think are the biggest challenges and opportunities in your career now?


    從宏觀上講,建筑承載城市功能,表達城市文化,推動城市經濟。建筑既要保證城市公共空間的界面連續與完整又要保證尺度協調和氛圍融洽,諸多要素的綜合調度是建筑師在設計時的難點,是個不斷發現問題并解決問題的過程。

    現在中國建筑創作進入了一個大規模、全類型、高速發展的時期,這使得本土建筑師有更大的創作舞臺,也獲得了國際上的認可,這樣能更有效的激發我們建筑師的創作熱情,大量優秀的建筑作品應運而生。像原麓社區這類先鋒的建筑作品,他的存在雖并非主流,但有了這些探索,中國建筑創作才有了前進的方向。


    Seen from a macro perspective, architecture carries urban functions, expresses urban culture and boosts urban economic development. It must ensure the continuity and completeness of the surfaces of urban spaces, coordinate their dimensions and harmoniously fit into the overall atmosphere. To handle multiple elements at the same time is a conundrum for designers, but it is also a process of continuously discovering and solving problems.


    Currently, Chinese architecture is witnessing a moment of large-scale, all-encompassing, high-speed development. This provides a stage for native Chinese architects to create and win more international recognition. Their enthusiasm for design is thus effectively ignited, and they produce a large number of outstanding architectural works. Avant-garde works like the Yuanlu Community Center project don’t belong to the main stream, but they will always serve as forerunners that lead Chinese architecture forward.


    10

    What are you working on now? What is in the pipeline for you?

    你現在在做什么?未來的計劃是什么?


    我們現在一直專注于對新材料的研究,以及現代建筑在結構體系、建筑空間、形式表現等方面的真實感與統一性。中國市場拋給我們越來越多的“集成化、多領域、寬范圍”的設計任務,我們在探討并重新發掘如何將中國傳統木構文化與現代木構的結合,利用有機建筑將傳統文脈轉化為結構形式,將它們人性化,賦予它們以新鮮活力,以期達到傳統文化深層次的延續。


    Challenge Design keeps its focus on research into new materials and the study of how to help modern architecture achieve authenticity and uniformity in structure, space and style. As we receive more and more integrated, multi-domain and wide-ranging design tasks from the Chinese market, we begin to consider and try combining the traditional culture of wood structures with modern wood structures, converting traditional culture into a visible structure by virtue of organic architecture. We humanize such materials and inject life into them in the hope of carrying forward traditional Chinese culture on a deeper level.

    △ 成執設計創始人、總建筑師李杰先生


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